SUSK marks 100th anniversary of Canada’s First National Internment Operations

To mark the 100th anniversary of Canada’s First National Internment Operations, SUSK calls upon its member Ukrainian Students’ Organizations and all Ukrainian Canadian students to commemorate and raise awareness of these dark pages in Canada’s history. In addition, SUSK encourages all Ukrainian Canadian students to support “CTO – The One Hundred Plaques across Canada initiative”, organized and led by the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Foundation (UCCLF). On Friday August 22, 2014 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the War Measures Act, 100 commemorative plaques will be unveiled across Canada.



SUSK marks the 100th Anniversary of Canada’s First National Internment Operations (1914-1920)

During Canada’s First National Internment Operations (1914-1920), thousands of men, women, and children were branded as “enemy aliens,” and subjected to state-sanctioned indignities, including internment, forced heavy labour, and disenfranchisement. Internees were subjected to such treatment not because of any wrong they had done, but only because of who they were, where they had come from. The majority of civilian internees were Ukrainians and other Europeans. Racist and anti-immigrant attitudes were common during the pre-war period. Together with wartime xenophobia and ignorance, these attitudes were largely responsible for the internment operations. Internees were held in 24 camps across the Dominion.

To mark the 100th anniversary of Canada’s First National Internment Operations, SUSK calls upon its member Ukrainian Students’ Organizations and all Ukrainian Canadian students to commemorate and raise awareness of these dark pages in Canada’s history. Events may include film screenings, informational exhibits/displays, lectures, seminars, and memorial events.

In addition, SUSK encourages all Ukrainian Canadian students to support “CTO – The One Hundred Plaques across Canada initiative”, organized and led by the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Foundation (UCCLF). On Friday August 22, 2014 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the War Measures Act, 100 commemorative plaques will be unveiled across Canada. All plaques will be unveiled at 11am local time in Ukrainian, Croatian, Serbian, German, and Hungarian community centres, creating a “wave” of unveilings, moving from east to west across Canada. In the words of Dr. Lubomyr Luciuk, the CTO project leader, “Be there to remember, and to learn.” Please see below for a full list of plaque unveiling sites.

Included in this release are several resources for hosting internment-related events:
– Canadian First World War Internment Recognition Fund:
– Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Foundation:
– List and map of all internment camps across Canada (see below)
– Information bulletin of “Freedom Had a Price,” a film about the internment of Ukrainians in Canada by Yurij Luhovy (see below)
– Roll call (list of camps and internees):

When sharing information via social media, please use the hashtag #internment100

Through commemorative initiatives such as project CTO, SUSK encourages its members to respect and preserve the memory of all internees, and in doing so, remind all Canadians of the importance of vigilance in defense of human rights and civil liberties of all people.

On behalf of the SUSK National Executive,

Christine Czoli Anastasia Hnatyuk SUSK President SUSK Secretary •

I. II.


(as of 1 July 2014)
1. Cumberland County Museum and Archives, Amherst, Nova Scotia, B4H 3A7


  1. St Michael’s Ukrainian Catholic Church, 2338 Iberville Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2K 3C6
  2. Holy Protection of the Mother of God Ukrainian Catholic Church, Val D’Or,Quebec, J9P 4A9
  3. Christ the King Ukrainian Catholic Church, 201 av Mercier, Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec,J0Z 1W0
  4. Our Lady of Hungary/Notre Dame des Hongrois, 90 rue Guizot Ouest, Montréal,Quebec, H2P 1L4
  5. Ukrainian National Federation – Montreal Branch, 405 Fairmount Street West,Montreal, Quebec, H2V 2G5
  6. Armenian National Committee of Canada, 3401 Olivar-Asselin, Montreal, Quebec, H4J 1L5
  7. Ukrainian Youth Association (CYM) – Montreal Branch, 3260 Est rue Beaubien,Montreal, Quebec, H1X 3C9


  1. Ukrainian National Federation, 145 Evans Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M8X 5X8
  2. Buduchnist Ukrainian Credit Union, Ottawa branch, 913 Carling Avenue, Ottawa,Ontario, K1Y 4E3
  3. St John the Baptist Ukrainian Catholic Shrine, 952 Green Valley Crescent, Ottawa,Ontario, K2C 3K7
  4. St John the Theologian Ukrainian Catholic Church, 91 Lakeshore Road, St Catharines,Ontario, L2N 2T6
  5. Holy Eucharist Ukrainian Catholic Church, 515 Broadview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario,M4K 2N6





  1. Ukrainian National Federation – West Toronto Branch, 2397A Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario, M6S 1P6
  2. St Demetrius Ukrainian Catholic Church,135 La Rose Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M9P 1A6
  3. Ukrainian Catholic Church of the Transfiguration, 131 Victoria Street South,Kitchener, Ontario, N2G 2B6
  4. StMary’sUkrainianCatholicChurch,582EagleStreetNorth,Cambridge,Ontario,N3H1C3
  5. Sts Vladimir & Olga Ukrainian Catholic Church, 6916 6th Concession North,Amhertsburg, Ontario, N9V 2Y9
  6. “Plast” Ukrainian Youth Association Hall, 516 The Kingsway, Etobicoke, Ontario,M9A 3W6
  7. St John the Baptist Ukrainian Catholic Church, 92 Terrace Hill Street, Brantford,Ontario, N3R 1G3
  8. St Vladimir’s Institute, 620 Spadina Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2H4
  9. St Nicholas Ukrainian Catholic Church, 4 Bellwoods Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M6J 2P4
  10. St Catherine of Alexandria Catholic Church, 16 Hearn Street, PO Box 28, Bond Head,Ontario, L0G 1B0
  11. Serbian Heritage Museum, 6770 Tecumseh Road East, Windsor, Ontario, N8T 1E6
  12. Holy Protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary Ukrainian Catholic Church, 419 Pearl St.,Burlington, Ontario, L7R 2N2
  13. Queen of Peace Croatian Franciscan Centre, 9118 Winston Churchcill Boulevard,Norval, Ontario, L0P 1K0
  14. Holy Cross Croatian Roman Catholic Church, 1883 King Street East, Hamilton,Ontario, L8K 1V9
  15. Croatian National Home, 1925A Barton Street East, Hamilton, Ontario, L8H 2Y7

29. Croatian Parish “Father Kamber” Park, 4605 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ontario,

L5M 7C6

  1. Ukrainian National Federation – Hamilton Branch,170 Parkdale Avenue North,Hamilton, Ontario, L8H 5X2
  2. Mount Mary Immaculate Retreat Centre, c/o Knights of Columbus, 95 Goldenview Court, Waterdown, Ontario, L04 2H4
  3. St Joseph’s Ukrainian Catholic Church, 300 River Oaks Boulevard East, Oakville, Ontario, L6H 5T1
  4. Concordia German Canadian Club, 429 Ottawa Street South, Kitchener, Ontario, N2M 3P6
  5. League of Ukrainian Canadians, 9 Plastics Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M8Z 4B6
  6. League of Ukrainian Canadians, 482 Horner Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M8W 2B7
  7. St Sophia Ukrainian Orthodox Church, 651 Glen Forrest Boulevard, Waterloo,Ontario, N2L 4K4
  8. Buduchnist Ukrainian Credit Union, 2280 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario, M6S 1N9
  9. Ukrainian Seniors Centre, 30 Notre Dame Avenue, Sudbury, Ontario, P3C 5K2
  10. St Mary’s Ukrainian Catholic Church, 293 St George’s Avenue East, Sault Ste Marie,Ontario, P6B 6E8
  11. St Josaphat’s Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral, 143 Franklin Avenue, Toronto, Ontario,M6P 3Y9
  12. St Volodymyr’s Ukrainian Orthodox Cathedral, 404 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario,M5T 2S6



  1. St Michael’s Ukrainian Catholic Church, 4426 Ontario Street, Beamsville, Ontario, L0R 1B0
  2. St Vladimir’s Ukrainian Catholic Church, 39-2 Street, Kirkland Lake, Ontario, P2N 1R4
  3. Oshawa City Hall, 50 Centre St. South, Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 3Z7
  4. St George’s Ukrainian Orthodox Church, 19 Ontario Street, Grimsby, Ontario, L3M 3G8


  1. Ukrainian Canadian Foundation of Taras Shevchenko, #202-952 Main Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R2W 3P4
  2. Ukrainian Canadian Institute “Prosvita,” 777 Pritchard Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R2X 0E8
  3. St George’s Ukrainian Orthodox Church, 202 Kerr Avenue, Dauphin, Manitoba, R7N 0S2
  4. Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Holy Ghost, 830 Lorne Avenue, Brandon,Manitoba, R7A 0T8
  5. City of Brandon, 410-9th Street, Brandon, Manitoba, R7A 6A2
  6. Ukrainian Connection, 620 9th Street NW, Portage La Prairie, Manitoba, R1N 3H6
  7. Holy Trinity Ukrainian Orthodox Metropolitan Cathedral, 1175 Main Street,Winnipeg, Manitoba, R2W 3S4
  8. St Joseph’s Ukrainian Catholic Church, 250 Jefferson Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba,R2V 0M6
  9. Sts Vladimir’s and Olga’s Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral, 113 McGregor Street,Winnipeg, Manitoba, R2V 3S8
  10. Holy Eucharist Ukrainian Catholic Church, 505 Watt Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba,R2K 1K5
  11. Holy Resurrection Ukrainian Catholic Church, 801 Jackson Street, Dauphin,Manitoba, R7N 2N3
  12. Blessed Virgin Mary Ukrainian Catholic Church, 965 Boyd Avenue, Winnipeg,Manitoba, R2X 0Z9
  13. St Nicholas Ukrainian Catholic Church, 737 Bannerman Avenue, Winnipeg,Manitoba, R2X 1J9
  14. Immaculate Conception Ukrainian Catholic Church, 26 Park Cove, Cook’s Creek,West Pine Ridge, Manitoba, R1C 0E5
  15. St Michael’s Ukrainian Catholic Church, 400 Day Street, Transcona, Manitoba,R2C 2Z9
  16. St Andrew’s College, University of Manitoba, 29 Dysart Road, Winnipeg, Manitoba,R3T 2M7
  17. Canada’s National Ukrainian Festival, 1550 Main Street South, Box 368, Dauphin,Manitoba, R7N 2V2
  18. Aborg and District Multicultural Heritage Museum, PO Box 4007, Arborg, Manitoba,R0C 0A0
  19. Beausejour- Broken Beau Pioneer Heritage Museum, Box 301, Beausejour, Manitoba,R0E 0C0




65. St George’s Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral, 214 Ave M South, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7M 2K4

66. Our Mother of Perpetual Help Ukrainian Catholic
Church, 155 Catherine Street, Yorkton, Saskatchewan, S3N 0B9

  1. Canora Ukrainian Heritage Museum, 215 Main Street, Box 417, Canora, Saskatchewan, S0A 0L0
  2. Ukrainian Museum of Canada, 910 Spadina Crescent East, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7K 3H5
  3. German Canadian Concordia Club, 160 Cartwright Street East, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7T 1B1
  4. St Basil’s Ukrainian Catholic Church, 1747 Toronto Street, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4P 1M5

71. Petro Mohyla Institute, 1240 Temperance Street, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 0P1


  1. Kule Folklore Centre, c/o 200 Old Arts and Convocation Hall, Department of Modern Languages and Cultural Studies, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E6
  2. All Saints Ukrainian Orthodox Church, 5402-53 Street, Camrose, Alberta, T4V 1Z7
  3. Ukrainian Canadian Museum and Archives, 9543 – 110 Avenue NW, Edmonton,Alberta, T5H 1H3
  4. St Michael the Archangel Ukrainian Orthodox Church, 12104-129 Avenue,Edmonton, Alberta, T5L 2T8
  5. St Olha Ukrainian Catholic Church, 4504- 49 Avenue, Vermilion, Alberta T9X 1P7
  6. St Vladimir Ukrainian Orthodox Church, 5146-48 Avenue, Vegreville, Alberta, T9C 1M6
  7. St John’s Institute, 11024-82 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 0T2
  8. Holy Trinity Ukrainian Catholic Church, 5701 51 Street, Vegreville, Alberta, T9C 1H8
  9. St John’s Ukrainian Orthodox Cathedral 10611 – 110 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta,T5H 2Z5
  10. Village of Munson, 103 Main Street, Box 10, Munson, Alberta, T0J 2C0,
  11. Galt Museum and Archives, 910-4th Avenue South, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1J 0P6
  12. Ukrainian Youth (CYM) Unity Complex, 915-153 Avenue NW, Edmonton, Alberta,T5E 6B1
  13. Grande Prairie Museum & Heritage Village, 10329 101 Avenue, Grande Prairie,Alberta, T8V 6V3
  14. Basilian Fathers Museum and Archives, 5335 Sawchuk Street, Mundare, Alberta,T0B 3H0
  15. Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary Ukrainian Catholic Church, 729-6 Street NE,Calgary, Alberta, T2E 6X2
  16. CYM- Ukrainian Youth Association, Calgary Branch, 409-9th Avenue NE,Calgary, Alberta, T2E 0V9
  17. St Vladimir’s Ukrainian Orthodox Church, 404 Meredith Road NE, Calgary, Alberta,T2E 5A6





  1. StMary’sUkrainianOrthodoxChurch,P.O.Box873,Vernon,BritishColumbia,V1T6M8
  2. City of Vernon, 3400-30th Street, Vernon, British Columbia, V1T 5E6
  3. Holy Eucharist Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral, 408 5th Street, New Westminster,British Columbia, V3L 2X6
  4. St Michael the Archangel Ukrainian Catholic Church, 1112 Caledonia Avenue,Victoria, British Columbia, V8T 1G1
  5. Holy Trinity Ukrainian Catholic Church, 118 Don Street, Kamloops, BritishColumbia, V2B 1B7
  6. City of Enderby, 619 Cliff Avenue, PO Box 400, Enderby, British Columbia, V0E 1V0
  7. City of Nanaimo, 455 Wallace Street, Nanaimo, British Columbia, V9R 5J6
  8. St Josaphat’s Ukrainian Catholic Church, 2210-40th Avenue, Vernon, British Columbia,V1T 8Z9
  9. Dormition of the Mother of God Ukrainian Catholic Church, 1091 Coronation Avenue,Kelowna, British Columbia, V7Y 7A8
  10. City of Fernie, Box 190, 501-3rd Avenue, Fernie, British Columbia, V0B 1M0
  11. Immaculate Heart of Mary Croatian Roman Catholic Church, 3105 East 1st Avenue,Vancouver, British Columbia, V5M 1B6

100. Revelstoke Museum and Archives, 315 First Street West, PO Box 1908, Revelstoke,

British Columbia, V0E 2S0

VIII. Thanks to the generosity of the Endowment Council of the Canadian First World War Internment Recognition Fund some additional plaques have been provided to the following locations, for unveiling on 22 August 2014.

British Columbia

• St Mary’s Ukrainian Orthodox Parish, 15239 – 92 Avenue, Surrey, British Columbia, V3R 0A8


  • All Saints Ukrainian Orthodox Church, 158 Highway Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7H 4X7
  • All Saints Ukrainian Orthodox Parish, 2616 Louise Street, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7J 0P3
  • Holy Transfiguration Ukrainian Orthodox Parish, 89 Bradbrooke Drive, Yorkton,Saskatchewan, S3N 2Y2
  • Holy Trinity Ukrainian Orthodox Church, 904, Main Street, Canora, SaskatchewanManitoba
  • St. Ivan Suchavsky Ukrainian Orthodox Sobor Parish, 939 Main Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R2W 3P2
  • Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada, Office of the Consistory, 9 St. John’s Avenue,Winnipeg, Manitoba, R2W 1G8
  • All Saints Ukrainian Orthodox Church, 1500 Day Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R2C 1E4
  • German Canadian Congress, 58-81 Garry Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3C 4J9



  • St Demetrius Ukrainian Orthodox Sobor Parish, 3338 Lakeshore Blvd West, Etobicoke, Ontario, M8W 1M9
  • Sts. George & Archangel Michael Serbian Orthodox Church, 6085 Montrose Road South, Niagara Falls, Ontario L2H 1L4
  • Timmins Museum, 325 Second Avenue, Timmins, Ontario P4N 0B3
  • St. Vladimir Ukrainian Orthodox Sobor Parish, 855 Barton Street East, Hamilton, Ontario, L8L 3B4
  • St Volodymyr Ukrainian Orthodox Sobor Parish, 2000 Tecumseh Road East, Windsor, Ontario,N8W 1E2


Canada’s first national internment operations, 1914-1920

Name of Camp

Date of Opening

Date of Closing


Montreal, Quebec 13 August 1914 30 November 1918 Immigration Hall

Kingston, Ontario 18 August 1914 3 November 1917 Fort Henry

Winnipeg, Manitoba 1 September 1914 20 July 1916 Fort Osborne Barracks / Fort Garry

Halifax, Nova Scotia 8 September 1914 3 October 1918 e Citadel

Vernon, British Columbia 18 September 1914 20 February 1920 Provincial Government Building

Nanaimo, British Columbia 20 September 1914 17 September 1915 Provincial Government Building

Brandon, Manitoba 22 September 1914 29 July 1916 Exhibition Building

Lethbridge, Alberta 30 September 1914 7 November 1916 Exhibition Building

Petawawa, Ontario 10 December 1914 8 May 1916 Militia Camp

Toronto, Ontario 14 December 1914 2 October 1916 Stanley Barracks

Kapuskasing, Ontario 14 December 1914 24 February 1920 Bunk Houses

Niagara Falls, Ontario 15 December 1914 31 August 1918 e Armoury

Beauport, Quebec 28 December 1914 22 June 1916 e Armoury

Spirit Lake, Quebec 13 January 1915 28 January 1917 Bunk Houses

Sault Ste Marie, Ontario 13 January 1915 29 January 1918 e Armoury

Amherst, Nova Scotia

17 April 1915

27 September 1919

Malleable Iron Works

Monashee-Mara Lake, 2 June 1915 29 July 1917 Tents & Bunk Houses British Columbia

Fernie-Morrissey, 9 June 1915 21 October 1918 Rented Premises British Columbia

Banff-Castle Mountain 14 July 1915 15 July 1917 Dominion Park Building at Cave & Basin and Cave & Basin, Alberta Tents at Castle Mountain

Edgewood, British Columbia

19 August 1915

23 September 1916

Bunk Houses

Revelstoke-Field-Otter, 6 September 1915 23 October 1916 Bunk Houses British Columbia

Jasper, Alberta 8 February 1916 31 August 1916 Dominion Parks Buildings

Munson, Alberta-Eaton, Saskatchewan 13 October 1918 21 March 1919 Railway Cars

Valcartier, Quebec 24 April 1915 23 October 1915 Militia Camp

source: Report on Internment Operations Canada Internment Operations, 1914 1920

• Report By Major-General Sir William Otter, K.C.B., C.V.O • Ottawa, omas Mulvey
Director Internment Operations Printer To e King’s Most Excellent Majesty, 1921

from A Time For Atonement: Canada’s First National Internment Operations and the Ukrainian Canadians 1914-1920 by Lubomyr Luciuk (Kingston: Limestone Press, 1988)

Freedom Had A Price

Produced, Directed, Edited by Yurij Luhovy

Narrated by Paul Almond

Before the First World War, 170,000 Ukrainians came to Canada, seeking freedom and a better life.

Thousands soon found themselves interned as “enemy aliens” in 24 camps across Canada – the first internment camps ever set up by the Canadian government.

Freedom Had a Price tells the little- known story of those Ukrainian immigrants who, described by the Canadian government as “enemy aliens” at the outbreak of World War One, found themselves subject to discriminatory and repressive measures for the next six years. Between 1914 and 1920, about 80,000 Ukrainian immigrants were forced to register as “enemy aliens”, report regularly to the police and carry government-issued identity papers at all times. Over 5,000 of their compatriots suffered an even more sever fate, imprisoned in internment camps across the country.

Treatment was often harsh, and conditions grim. Some died in the camps, many were sick or injured and several were killed by guards while trying to escape. By means of archival footage, vintage photographs, the compelling testimony of survivors and the commentary of such prominent Canadian historians as Desmond Morton and Donald Avery, award- winning filmmaker Yurij Luhovy weaves a moving human story of Canadian history that has all but disappeared form public consciousness.

For more information on Canada’s First National Internment Operation:

“The Price of Freedom”

by Fran Ponomarenko

Freedom Had A Price

by Patricia Maruschak

Documentary on Interment

Operations 1914-1920 now

Available on DVD (article)

Ukrainian Weekly

For more information about Freedom Had A Price please e-mail: